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COXSACKIEVIRUSES

PREPARED BY GROUP (7) :
TITIANA BT NONIAZNI
NICHOLAS KAMARAU ANAK JOHNY
FATIN NABILA BT DULRANI


COXSACKIEVIRUSES

1.0   INTRODUCTION

The Coxsackieviruses were discovered in 1948-49 by Dr. Gilbert Dalldorf a scientist working at the New York State Department of Health in Albany, New York. Throughout history, the Coxsackie virus is one of the viruses that can affect children. Coxsackie is the virus that lives in the digest tract. This virus may be mistaken for teething, sore throat, and ear infections. Other than that, this virus can show itself through several different kinds of symptoms in children. Coxsackie is not dangerous but it will be painful for the children. Coxsackie virus is similar with HFMD which is can spread from person to person. This virus typically begins with a fever and feeling generally unwell. This is followed three days later by flat discovered spots or bumps that may be blister on the tongue, gums, hard palate, inside the cheeks, the palms of hands and soles of the feet. This virus is a common infection caused by a group of viruses and rarely can caused pneumonia, meningitis, encephalitis or particularly in newborns.



What ages of children are usually affected by the Coxsackie?

This virus is majority can affected children are under 10 years old. But this virus usually affects children between 6 months to 3 years old. Other than that, newborn also can be affected through their mother and the symptoms may begin to show about two weeks after birth.

What are the symptoms of the Coxsackievirus?

For our information, not all of children show symptoms of the Coxsackie. The first symptoms of the Coxsackie are high fever for about 3 days, then having sore throat and abnormal fussiness. Other than that, example of Coxsackie symptoms are abdominal discomfort or nausea, excessive drooling, refusal to eat and drink, headache and muscle aches. Besides, Coxsackie symptoms also likes itchy and painful rash on the hands or fingers and bottom of the feet. Sometimes this rash may spread to the buttocks or genitals as well.




2.0   TYPES OF COXSACKIE

There are two types of Coxsackie virus serotypes that cause most of the clinically recognized syndromes, usually in infants and kids. Types A and B are the most common. Type A virus cause Herpangina (sores in the throat) and hand, foot, and mouth disease, common among children. Children will get painful blisters in their mouth and small tender lesions on the palms of their hands and bottom of their feet. It goes away on its own, but can cause complications if the child can't drink or eat cause of pain. Type A virus also causes Herpangina, blisters on the tonsils and soft palate, which presents as a sore throat. Type B virus causes infrequent, summer outbreaks of fever and spasms of the abdominal and chest muscles (pleurodynia). Subtypes of group A and B can cause more severe symptoms, including meningitis which is inflammation of the spinal cord and brain.



2.1   Herpangina

Herpangina is a common childhood illness caused by a virus. It is characterized by small, blister-like ulcers on the roof of the mouth and in the back of the throat. The infection may also cause a sudden fever, sore throat, headache, and neck pain. Herpangina is similar to hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), another type of viral infection that commonly affects children. Both conditions are caused by Enteroviruses. The symptoms of Herpangina are having small ulcers in the back of the mouth and throat that begin to appear about two days after the initial infection. They tend to be light gray and often have a red border. The ulcers usually heal within seven days. People who are infected with Herpangina are most contagious during the first week of infection. Herpangina is typically transmitted through contact with fecal matter. The infection may also be spread through contact with droplets from an infected person’s sneeze or cough. This means that you can get Herpangina if you touch your mouth after touching something that’s contaminated with fecal particles or droplets from an infected person. The virus can live on surfaces and objects, such as countertops and toys, for several days.

2.2   Enteroviruses

Enteroviruses are a group of viruses that typically affect the gastrointestinal tract but sometimes spread to other parts of the body. Normally, the body’s immune system produces antibodies to fight off infection. Antibodies are proteins that recognize and destroy harmful substances, such as viruses and bacteria. However, infants and young children are less likely to have the appropriate antibodies because they haven’t developed them yet. This makes them more susceptible to Enteroviruses. The groups of viruses that cause Herpangina are very contagious. Luckily, the symptoms are treatable and usually clear up within seven to 10 days.




3.0   COXSACKIE SPREAD

The Coxsackie virus usually spread from person to person on unwashed hands. This virus also can be contracted from surfaces contaminated by feces where is the virus can live for several days. Other than that, this virus can be spread from the saliva that is expelled while sneezing or coughing. Besides, Coxsackie virus also can be spread on toys or other items that come in contact with body fluid. For example, a child with Coxsackie virus puts a toy in her mouth and then another child puts the same toy in his mouth while the virus is still alive. A pregnant mother may also pass the Coxsackie virus on to her child when the child comes into contact with the mother’s body fluids during birth. This virus is very contagious particularly during the first week of the virus. Once the fever has been gone for 2 days, the child is no longer contagious.



There is no vaccine or medicine to prevent the Coxsackie virus. Frequent hand washing is the best method of prevention. If toys are shared between children, wash the toys with a disinfectant frequently to keep the virus from spreading. Regularly clean items that the child may put in the mouth (like pacifiers) to reduce the possibility of contracting the virus. Other than that we should handle diapers carefully and dispose of properly. Teach children to cover their mouth when sneezing or coughing and then to follow with hand washing. Keep a child with the Coxsackie virus out of school, childcare, camp or classes with other children to minimize the spread of the virus.


4.0   HOW CAN THE COXSACKIE VIRUS BE TREATED?

Most of the time, as we know that the virus will go away on its own without the treatment. The virus can last for 24 hours to 7 days but varies widely. A doctor may prescribe some medicine, but typically the medicine is only to relieve the symptoms in the child because a virus cannot be treated with an antibiotic. Besides, as parents we must bring some relief to the child such as prepare cold liquids like milk, popsicles or slushies can help soothe the pain and prevent dehydration, but stay away from acidic juices like orange juice as they will be irritating to the child’s throat. Other than that, Acetaminophen or Ibuprofen to help with pain and fever, Liquid Benadryl to help the child sleep, and Topical Benadryl to treat the hand and foot rash. If the children fever more than 3 days or higher than 100.4 degrees, parents should bring children go to clinic or hospital. Parents should care and know about this type of virus because it important to the health. Parents should call the doctor if children fever more than 3 days and meet the doctor.


CONCLUSION

In conclusion, every children need attention and live peaceful. They are very young and don’t know about the virus. So that parents should take care of the children and be responsible to them. Children at early ages explore the world with joyful without knowing dangerous. Teacher at school should teach the children on how to be healthy. For example, wash hands with soap, cover mouth during cough or sneeze, and others. Parents also need to be responsible which is about children’s health.


REFERENCES

1.  Tammy Gold, 2017, “Does your child have Coxsackie? Here a quick guide to help?” https://www.huffpost.com/entry/does-your-child-have-coxsackie-heres-a-quickguide_b_5909fa09e4b03b105b44be23?guccounter=1&guce_referrer=aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuZ29vZ2xlLmNvbS8&guce_referrer_sig=AQAAADYOPsxGOV_t-BuRkIghcc2c3aoo_HMhaQj3ssQ7KM_AeUfr25w8w4bcfUQKO6aZGGdWBJ4F45EfLVXWnKsPTMSrYTjykCEJtPiraKkRxuYnwHMTejooeYM9bIMDofAIu3SZfeE9pYOOM7IGKoVlb19I_109wZenewI7nd249GS

2.  DermNet New Zealand, November 7, 2016 “Hand, foot and mouth pathology” http://www.dermnetnz.org/topics/hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-pathology/

3.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), June 2014, “Hand, foot, and mouth disease: prevention & treatment” www.cdc.gov/hand-foot-mouth/about/preventiontreatment.html

4.  Martha L Muller, 2018, “Coxsackieviruses”, https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/215241-overview

5.  Mayo clinic staff, 2017, “Hand Foot Mouth Disease”, https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hand-foot-and-mouthdisease/symptoms-causes/syc-20353035

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